10.0% —or about 283,000 hectares—of Armenia is forested. Of this, 5.0% —or roughly 14,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Armenia lost an average of 4,100 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.18%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 21.7% to 1.44% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Armenia lost 18.2% of its forest cover, or around 63,000 hectares. Armenia lost -3,000 hectares—0—of its primary forest cover during that time. Deforestation rates of primary cover have decreased 17.7% since the close of the 1990s. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Armenia lost 15.7% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Armenia has some 440 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.9% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 5.9% are threatened. Armenia is home to at least 3553 species of vascular plants. 10.1% of Armenia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Armenia: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)2,820,000
Total Forest Area (ha)283,000
Percent Forest Cover10.04%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)14,000
Primary Forest, % total forest4.95%
Primary Forest, % total land0.50%
Other wooded land (ha)45,000

Armenia : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)61%
Temperate (% forest area)39%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Armenia: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)14,0004.9%
Modified natural (ha | %)259,00091.5%
Semi-natural (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)10,0003.5%

Armenia: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)346,000
Forest 2000 (ha)305,000
Forest 2005 (ha)283,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(4,100)-1.18%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(4,400)-1.44%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(63,000)-18.21%
Change in rate (%)21.74%
Primary 1990 (ha)17,000
Primary 2000 (ha)15,000
Primary 2005 (ha)14,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(200)-1.18%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(200)-1.33%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(3,000)-17.65%
Change in rate (%)13.33%
Other 1990 (ha)45,000
Other 2000 (ha)45,000
Other 2005 (ha)45,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)14,000
Other 2000 (ha)11,000
Other 2005 (ha)10,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(300)-2.14%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(200)-1.82%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(4,000)-28.57%
Change in rate (%)-15.15%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)377,000
Other 2000 (ha)339,000
Other 2005 (ha)318,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(3,800)-1.01%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(4,200)-1.24%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(59,000)-15.65%
Change in rate (%)22.92%

Armenia: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)14,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)-
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)14,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)0.50%

Armenia: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)98.9%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest � primary function 2005
Production (%)0.0%
Protection (%)61.8%
Conservation (%)17.0%
Social Services (%)21.2%
Multiple Services (%)0.0%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Armenia: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.00%
Insects (ha)9.18%
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Armenia: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20052
World Heritage sites, 20043
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land10.1%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land7.30%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20042.74%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.00%

Armenia: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species7
endemic species0
threatened species0
total species302
endemic species1
threatened species12
total species78
endemic species2
threatened species9
total species53
endemic species1
threatened species5
Wildlife diversity
total species440
endemic species4
threatened species26

Armenia: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species125
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic0
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened1

Armenia: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)27
Below-ground biomass (M t)9
Dead wood (M t)5
Total (M t)41
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)13
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)5
Carbon in dead wood (M t)3
Carbon in litter (M t)10
Soil carbon (M t)13
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)11
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)80
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)91
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)n.s.
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)$640,000
Wood fuel (US$)$1,165,000
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)$1,805,000
Total value ($USD/ha)$6
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed2,000

Armenia : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Armenia: Environment
Environment - current issuessoil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Natural hazardsoccasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Armenia: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 17.55%
permanent crops: 2.3%
other: 80.15% (2001)
Natural resourcessmall deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina

Armenia: Economy
Economy - overview:Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2005. Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. Armenia's unemployment rate, however, remains high, despite strong economic growth. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, remittances from Armenians working abroad, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector. The government made some improvements in tax and customs administration in 2005, but anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement. Investment in the construction and industrial sectors is expected to continue in 2006 and will help to ensure annual average real GDP growth of about 7.5%.
GDP - per capita$5,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)8% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productsfruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 24.9%, industry: 34.6%, services: 40.5% (2004 est.)
Industries diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Economic aid - recipientODA $170 million (2000)
Debt - external$1.868 billion (31 December 2004)
Population below poverty line (%)43% (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 45%, industry 25%, services 30% (2002 est.)

Armenia: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)2,982,904
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.25%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)105.0
Percent rural (2003)35.6%
Median age (years)total: 30.07 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.32 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census)

Largest Cities in Armenia

Cities and urban areas in Armenia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World�s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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