39.7% —or about 2,760,000 hectares—of Georgia is forested. Of this, 18.1% —or roughly 500,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest.

Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Georgia had no significant change or no reported in forest cover. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Georgia lost 0.3% of its forest and woodland habitat.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Georgia has some 442 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 0.0% are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 6.1% are threatened. Georgia is home to at least 4350 species of vascular plants, of which 8.7% are endemic. 4.2% of Georgia is protected under IUCN categories I-V.


Georgia: Forest Cover, 2005
Total Land Area (ha)6,949,000
Total Forest Area (ha)2,760,000
Percent Forest Cover39.72%
Primary Forest Cover (ha)500,000
Primary Forest, % total forest18.12%
Primary Forest, % total land7.20%
Other wooded land (ha)50,000

Georgia : Forest types
Tropical (% forest area)0%
Subtropical (% forest area)41%
Temperate (% forest area)59%
Boreal/polar (% forest area)0%

Georgia: Breakdown of forest types, 2005
Primary forest (ha | %)500,00018.1%
Modified natural (ha | %)2,200,00079.7%
Semi-natural (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)-0.0%
Production plantation (ha | %)60,0002.2%

Georgia: Change in Forest Cover
Forest 1990 (ha)2,760,000
Forest 2000 (ha)2,760,000
Forest 2005 (ha)2,760,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Primary 1990 (ha)500,000
Primary 2000 (ha)500,000
Primary 2005 (ha)500,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)-0.00%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Change in rate (%)#DIV/0!
Other 1990 (ha)53,000
Other 2000 (ha)51,000
Other 2005 (ha)50,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(200)-0.38%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(200)-0.39%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(3,000)-5.66%
Change in rate (%)3.92%
Other 1990 (ha)54,000
Other 2000 (ha)60,000
Other 2005 (ha)60,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)6001.11%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)-0.00%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)6,00011.11%
Change in rate (%)-100.00%
Forest area+Wooded Area-Plantations
Other 1990 (ha)2,759,000
Other 2000 (ha)2,751,000
Other 2005 (ha)2,750,000
Annual Change 1990-2000 (ha | %)(800)-0.03%
Annual Change 2000-2005 (ha | %)(200)-0.01%
Total Change 1990-2005 (ha | %)(9,000)-0.33%
Change in rate (%)-74.93%

Georgia: Primary
Primary or "old-growth" vegetation
Primary Forest 2005 (ha)500,000
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)0
Other primary wooded land 2005 (ha)500,000
Undisturbed vegetation 2005 (% land area)7.20%

Georgia: Forest designation
Ownership of forest land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Ownership of other wooded land, 2000
Public (%)100.0%
Private (%)0.0%
Other (%)0.0%
Designated functions of forest � primary function 2005
Production (%)0.0%
Protection (%)78.4%
Conservation (%)8.2%
Social Services (%)13.4%
Multiple Services (%)0.0%
None of Unknown (%)0.0%

Georgia: Disturbances affecting forest land 2000
Forest Area annually affected by
Fire (%)0.00%
Insects (ha)0.04%
Diseases (ha)-
Other (ha)-

Georgia: Protected areas
Protected areas
Biosphere reserves, 2005
Wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites), 20052
World Heritage sites, 20043
Protected Areas: IUCN categories I-V, percent of total land4.2%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories Ia, Ib, and II, extent, percent of total land3.50%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories III, IV, and V, percent of total land, 20040.66%
Protected Areas: IUCN categories VI and other, percent of total land, 20040.14%

Georgia: Biodiversity - Wildlife
total species15
endemic species0
threatened species1
total species268
endemic species0
threatened species8
total species98
endemic species0
threatened species11
total species61
endemic species0
threatened species7
Wildlife diversity
total species442
endemic species0
threatened species27

Georgia: Biodiversity - Plants
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Growing stock composition
3 most common species
% of total growing stock
Number of Native tree species
Native tree species153
Number of tree species in IUCN red list
Critically Endangered0
Vascular Plant Species, 2004
Number endemic380
Number of Threatened Plant Species, 2004
Species threatened0

Georgia: Value of forests
Biomass stock in forest, 2005
Above-ground biomass (M t)334
Below-ground biomass (M t)86
Dead wood (M t)59
Total (M t)479
Carbon stock in forest, 2005
Carbon in above-ground biomass (M t)167
Carbon in below-ground biomass (M t)43
Carbon in dead wood (M t)29
Carbon in litter (M t)54
Soil carbon (M t)196
Change in growing stock 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate (1000 cubic m/yr)
Growing stock per hectare 1990 - 2005
Annual change rate ( cubic m/ha per yr)
Wood removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (1000 cubic m)140
Wood fuel (1000 cubic m)478
Total wood removal 2005 (1000 cubic m)619
Total wood removal 2005 (% of growing stock)n.s.
Plant products 2005
Food (t)-
Fodder (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Raw material for utensils, handicrafts & construction (t)-
Ornamental plants (t)-
Exudates (t)-
Other plant products (t)-
Animal products 2005
Living animals (units)-
Hides, skins and trophies (units)-
Wild honey and bee-wax (t)-
Bush meat (t)-
Raw material for medicine and aromatic products (t)-
Raw material for colorants and dyes (t)-
Other edible animal products (t)-
Other non-edible animal products (t)-
Value of wood and non-wood forest product removal 2005
Industrial roundwood (US$)-
Wood fuel (US$)-
Non-wood forest products (US$)-
Total value (US$)-
Total value ($USD/ha)$-
Employment in forestry 2000
Total people employed7,000

Georgia : Production, trade and consumption of forest products, 2002
Woodfuel ('000 cubic m), 2002
Industrial roundwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Sawnwood ('000 cubic m), 2002
Wood-based panels ('000 cubic m), 2002
Pulp for paper ('000 metric tons), 2002
Paper and paperboard ('000 metric tons), 2002
Georgia: Environment
Environment - current issuesair pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Natural hazardsearthquakes

Georgia: Land use / Resources
Land use (%)arable land: 11.44%
permanent crops: 3.86%
other: 84.7% (2001)
Natural resourcesforests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Georgia: Economy
Economy - overview:Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as citrus fruits, tea, hazelnuts, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 1995, achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation. Georgia had suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues, however, the new government is making progress in reforming the tax code, enforcing taxes, and cracking down on corruption. In addition, the privatisation process has taken off, permitting the government to boost expenditures on infrastructure, defence and poverty reduction. Smuggling is a perennial drain on the economy. Georgia also suffers from energy shortages; it privatized the T'bilisi electricity distribution network in 1998, but payment collection rates remain low, both in T'bilisi and throughout the regions. The country is pinning its hopes for long-term growth on its role as a transit state for pipelines and trade. The construction on the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and the Baku-T'bilisi-Erzerum gas pipeline have brought much-needed investment and job opportunities. Nevertheless, high energy prices in 2006 will compound the pressure on the country's inefficient energy sector. Restructuring the sector and finding energy supply alternatives to Russia remains a major challenge.
GDP - per capita$3,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate (%)10% (2005 est.)
Agriculture - productscitrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
GDP - composition by sector (%)agriculture: 16%, industry: 26.8%, services: 57.2% (2005 est.)
Industries steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine
Economic aid - recipientODA $150 million (2000 est.)
Debt - external$1.9 billion (2003)
Population below poverty line (%)54% (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation (%)agriculture 40%, industry 20%, services 40% (1999 est.)

Georgia: Population / Demographics
Population (July 2005)4,677,401
Population growth rate (%) (2005)-0.35%
Population density (people/sq km) (2005)67.1
Percent rural (2003)48.1%
Median age (years)total: 37.36 years
Total fertility rate (children born/woman)1.41 (2005 est.)
Ethnic groups (%)Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, other 2.5% (2002 census)

Largest Cities in Georgia

Cities and urban areas in Georgia with population over 100,000 All figures are estimates for 2002.

CityCountryCity PopulationUrban Area Population

 Environment, Land use / Resources, Economy, Population / Demographics, Infrastructure, Health -- CIA World Factbook, 2005
 Forest Cover, Forest types, Breakdown of forest types, Change in Forest Cover, Primary forests, Forest designation, Disturbances affecting forest land, Value of forests, Production, trade and consumption of forest products -- The FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS's Global Forest Resources Assessment (2005) and the State of the World�s Forests (2005, 2003, 2001)
 Protected Areas, Plant and animal biodiversity -- United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2004. World Database on Protected Areas.
 Biosphere reservers -- United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Man and Biosphere Program. 2004. UNESCO - MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory.
 RAMSAR sites -- The Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands . 2005. The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.
 World Resources Institute's EarthTrends web site
 The 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
 Population Data -- United Nations Population Fund
 With additional analysis by Rhett Butler of

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